Lesson 3: Early Military Victories

Lesson 3 Study Notes

  • Hello friends, Bishop Lewter here with my third lesson on the life of Alexander the Great. Friends, in this lesson I will explore the early military career of Alexander the Great following his consolidation of the Macedonian Empire and his initial foray into Asia Minor victory at Cranicus. In this lesson, I will also examine Alexander's first confrontation with Darius III and his capture of Darius III's wife and daughter. Finally, friends, we will discuss the sensitive topic of Alexander's sexuality. Join me as we continue our course on Alexander the Great.
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We begin here with the early reign and the Battle of Issus. Alexander the Great, ascending to the throne of Macedon at the age of 20 in 336 BC, swiftly embarked on a series of campaigns that would cement his reputation as one of history's most brilliant military strategists. Among these early campaigns, his victory over Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC stands out as a pivotal moment. This battle not only marked a significant military triumph, but also led to a series of personal and political developments that influenced Alexander's legacy. Let's begin here with the Battle of Issus,

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a decisive victory. The Battle of Cranachus. Darius III, recognizing the threat posed by Alexander, assembled a massive army to confront the Macedonian forces. The two armies met near the town of Issus in modern-day Turkey. Despite being significantly outnumbered, Alexander's tactical acumen and the discipline of his troops turned the tide in his favor. Alexander positioned his forces to exploit the narrow battlefield, neutralizing the numerical advantage of the Persians.

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His decisive maneuver was a direct charge against Darius III, causing the Persian king to flee the battlefield. This not only led to a complete rout of the Persian forces, but also shattered their morale and demonstrated Alexander's supremacy. of this battle was the capturing of the royal family. In the aftermath of the battle, Alexander captured Darius III's family, including his

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wife, Thartira, his mother, Siskimas, and his daughters. Alexander's treatment of the royal family was marked by magnanimity and respect. He ensured they were treated according to their status and provided for their needs, a gesture that won him admiration and helped to portray him as a noble and just ruler.

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Now let's look at the often reported romantic relationship developed between Alexander and Statira I, Darius III's wife. This relationship is shrouded in a blend of historical fact and romantic legend. While concrete evidence is sparse, some sources imply that Statira became pregnant by Alexander and later died in childbirth. This narrative adds a layer of personal tragedy and complexity to Alexander's life, illustrating the intimate consequences of his vast and tumultuous conquests. In addition to this seductress relationship, there is also a report about

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Alexander's bisexuality and other personal relationships. Alexander the Great's personal life was characterized by a fluidity in his romantic relationships encompassing both men and He is commonly known for his deep and enduring relationship with Hephaestion, his closest companion, and a fellow Macedonian officer. Their bond was so profound that when Hephaestion died, Alexander's grief was overwhelming, leading to an elaborate funeral and expressions of mourning that underscored the intensity of their connection.

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Alexander's relationship with women were also significant. Besides Statera I, he married Roxana, a Bactrian princess, and later Statera II, the daughter of Darius III. the Third. However, these marriages were politically motivated, aiming to consolidate his control over the newly conquered territories and integrate the diverse cultures within his empire. In conclusion, Alexander the Great's early reign as the King of Macedon was marked by his extraordinary military prowess and strategic genius, exemplified by his victory

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over Darius III at the Battle of Issus. This battle not only underscored his capability as a military leader, but also set in motion a series of events that intertwined his personal and political life. The capture and subsequent relationship with Statira I highlight the human dimensions of his conquest while his bisexuality reflects the broader spectrum of his personal relationships. These elements collectively contribute to the enduring legacy of Alexander the Great, a figure who transcended the mere role of a conqueror to

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 collectively contribute to the enduring legacy of Alexander the Great, a figure who transcended the mere role of a conqueror to become a legend in history.
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